Albert Vanhoye, born in 1923 in Hazebrouck (France), entered the Society of Jesus in 1941. He was licensed in literature at the Sorbonne, in philosophy and theology in the school of his order, and earned his Doctor of Sacred Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome, with a thesis on the literary structure of Hebrews. He taught biblical exegesis in Chantilly (France) and then, from 1963 to 1998, New Testament exegesis and theology at the Biblical Institute, where he was also rector. He was a member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission from 1984 to 2001, serving as secretary from 1990 to 2001. He is the honorary president of the International Society for the Study of Biblical and Semitic Rhetoric. In 2006 he was created cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI.