I will be attending the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature. They have an added section to Hebrews this year:
Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting
San Diego, CA
November 23–26, 2019
Minoritized Criticism and Biblical Interpretation / Racism, Pedagogy and Biblical Studies
9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
Room: Balboa (South Tower - Level Three) - Marriott Marquis
Theme: Critical Race Theory and Biblical Criticism
Jennifer T. Kaalund, Iona College
What Inheritance Awaits You? Boundaries and Belonging in Hebrews (25 min)
"Genealogies are social constructs. They are political instruments that have multiple functions. For one, they connect the past to the present and the future. Promoting a genealogy can be a strategy of self-authorization. It can also be an assertion of a particular background or lineage. In the book of Hebrews, we encounter ἀγενεαλόγητος, one without a genealogy. Melchizedek, king of Salem and priest of the Most High God is described as one without father or mother (7:2). The lack of a genealogy here serves to further elucidate the author’s work to establish a new one in the chapters that follow. The author constructs a genealogy of faith; those who preserve and are faithful become God’s people, grafted into this lineage of those who “obtained a good testimony through faith, but didn’t not receive the promise”(10:39). An inheritance of hope is granted and salvation awaits the newly designated sons and daughters of God. In a contemporary context, genealogies remain formative tools, both personally (one’s relatives) and professionally (one’s teachers). Our own genealogies are seen as predictive even determining factors. This paper will explore how (fictive) kinship functions as a way to create peoplehood with a disparate group of people. Concomitantly, kinship ties can be exclusionary. Kinship is always social and establishes not only relationship but more specifically relationships of power. Drawing on critical race theory and utilizing a cultural comparative analyses, I will argue that belonging is a dangerous illusion when boundaries are tenuous– one is never fully accepted, but one is always working to be accepted."
The Bible in Ancient (and Modern) Media11/23/2019
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
Room: 31A (Upper Level East) - Convention Center
David Young, Boston University
Author Function in the Reception of the Epistle to the Hebrews among Editions of the Pauline Corpus and Eusebius' Catalogue of Christian Scriptures (30 min)
"Judgments regarding the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews played a significant role in Hebrews’ reception in antiquity. Such judgments, however, typically entailed more than mere assessments about who most likely authored the epistle. Attributions of authorship to Hebrews served a specific function in the diverse social contexts in which they were employed. The reception of Hebrews among editions of the Pauline corpus and in Eusebius’ catalogue of Christian scriptures are two specific contexts in which the function of author attribution and the diverse purposes to which it may be employed are particularly evident. One of the most critical tasks in the creation of an edition of an author’s writings in antiquity was the separation of authentic works from spurious ones. Early Greek and Latin manuscripts which include Hebrews suggest that one of the primary concerns in the epistle’s reproduction was its relationship to the Pauline corpus and thus also ideas about its authorship. Eusebius similarly discussed the authorship of Hebrews, as well as other Christian writings, utilizing his training in bibliographic method to separate authentic works from spurious ones. Although authorship served a significant function in both the creation of editions in antiquity and ancient bibliographic method, Eusebius transformed the latter in subtle yet significant ways, introducing new criteria into his catalogue of Christian scriptures, thereby employing author function to new ends."
Intertextuality in the New Testament / Hebrews
4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
Room: 28C (Upper Level East) - Convention Center
Theme: Intertextuality in the Letter to the Hebrews and the Old Testament/Jewish Literature
The Hebrews Section and The Intertextuality in the New Testament Section have collaborated for two joint plenary sessions. This is the first of two which features invited papers with responses that pay particular attention to the intertextual methods employed by the author of Hebrews with the Old Testament and Jewish literature.
Max Lee, North Park Theological Seminary, Presiding
Susan Docherty, Newman University Birmingham
Israel’s Scriptures in Hebrews (25 min)
"The deep engagement with Israel’s scriptures evident throughout Hebrews has ensured that this aspect of the epistle has been thoroughly treated by commentators in every age. The subject has been explored from all angles, with substantial and valuable studies available on everything from the nature of the author’s textual sources to his characteristic exegetical techniques, and from his overall understanding of scripture to the theological and rhetorical functions of specific citations. This paper aims to navigate a way through this almost bewildering wealth of material by drawing out from it the key areas of current debate and highlighting any potentially significant new approaches. It will set the scene, therefore, for the wider discussion in this session of Hebrews’ intertextual connections with the OT and Jewish Literature, by asking what scholars are saying now about how Hebrews uses scripture, and what they might be saying about this in the future."
David Moffitt, University of St. Andrews
Isaiah 53, Hebrews, and Covenant Renewal (25 min)
"This paper argues that Hebrews draws on aspects of Isaiah 53 and the servant’s role in restoring the fractured covenant relationship with God’s people. As such, Hebrews recognizes a distinction between the work that Jesus does to restore the covenant and the work that Jesus does as high priest to maintain it. In keeping with some other Second Temple Jewish evidence (e.g., 2 Maccabees), Hebrews does not conflate the singular suffering of the servant on behalf of God’s people with the normal sacrificial means of atonement."
Lori Baron, Saint Louis University, Respondent (10 min)
George Guthrie, Regent College
High Priestly Sacrifice and “Intertextual Layering” in Hebrews (25 min)
"In the past half century, strides have been made in assessing numerous dynamics in Hebrews' intertextual tapestry, including attention to a wide variety of the author's appropriation and rhetorical techniques. The current paper proposes the addition of "intertextual layering," a particular form of "fat" reflection on the Scriptures, the author alluding to or echoing various texts, associated through verbal analogy, to draw out diverse implications of a single dimension of the Christ Event. As illustration of the phenomenon, the paper focuses on the language of high-priestly sacrifice at Heb. 5:3 and 9:7, suggesting that the verbal analogy in these verses should be read as alluding respectively to sacrifice at the ordination of the priests in Lev. 9 and that on the Day of Atonement in Lev. 16. The implication suggested is that Christ's sacrifice is read as having a "layered" theological effect, accomplishing both the Son's ordination as a superior High Priest and his Day of Atonement sacrifice on behalf of his new covenant people."
Nicholas Perrin, Trinity International University
Two Psalms and a Priest Walked into a Bar: The Traditionsgeschichte behind Jesus’ Sacerdotal Sonship in Hebrews (25 min)
"A nagging question in the study of Hebrew relates to the notional origins of Jesus’ high priesthood qua ‘son’. Some scholars propose that the author derived this concept from traditions shaped by post-Easter atonement theology; others suggest a more directly Jewish influence; still others understand the move as pure innovation. Against all these approaches, this paper will argue that in grounding Jesus’ priesthood in Psalms 2 and 110, the auctor Hebraeos is drawing on a well-established interpretative tradition that was both derived from the earliest Jesus traditions and reinforced through the church’s liturgical life. If sustainable, this thesis calls for a fresh repositioning of one of the major theological planks animating Hebrews."
Erik Waaler, NLA University College, Respondent (10 min)
Discussion (30 min)
Hebrews / Intertextuality in the New Testament
9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
Room: 2 (Upper Level West) - Convention Center
Theme: Intertextuality in the Letter to the Hebrews and the Classical Tradition/Greco-Roman Literature
The Hebrews Section and The Intertextuality in the New Testament Section have collaborated for two joint plenary sessions. This is the second of two which features invited papers with responses that pay particular attention to the intertextual methods employed by the author of Hebrews with the classic tradition and Hellenistic/Greco-Roman literature.
David Moffitt, University of St. Andrews, Presiding
Kenneth Schenck, Houghton College
Echoes of Philo in the Sermon of Hebrews? (25 min)
"In 1970, Ronald Williamson set out to show that the supposed parallels between Hebrews and Philo were either superficial or misinterpreted. He effectively turned the direction set by Çeslas Spicq and others, who saw the author of Hebrews as a Philonist of sorts. What is striking about Williamson’s study, however, is the sheer number of potential parallels he considers. David Runia has also shown striking parallels to Philo in the way Hebrews cites a handful of biblical passages. Richard Hays’ work with intertextual “echoes” suggests another way to approach these parallels, namely, as echoes rather than direct engagement. This paper suggests that the sheer volume of such echoes seems too extensive to be mere coincidence and that the author of Hebrews was likely impacted at least indirectly by the work of Philo of Alexandria."
Madison N. Pierce, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
The Origins of Prosopological Exegesis and Features of Its Use in the Epistle to the Hebrews (25 min)
"The author of Hebrews is creative in his use of Scripture. One particularly noteworthy feature of his intertextual connections is the recontextualization of passages, which often results in different participants speaking or being addressed. For example, Jesus is portrayed as the speaker of Greek Psalm 39 in Hebrews 10. Likewise, in the interpretations of early Christian writers, the portrayed speaker (e.g., the Psalmist) is sometimes said to be speaking “from the person of” Christ (or God or the Spirit or the Church among others). These ancient interpreters heard the voice of these characters in the Psalms and Prophets. This phenomenon now is referred to most commonly as “prosopological exegesis.” As others have noted (Andresen, Rondeau, and more recently, Bates), early parallels to this technique are likely found in Hebrews. In almost every quotation of Scripture some new character emerges as a speaker or addressee. This paper will provide some suggestions regarding the origins of this exegetical method from Greco-Roman rhetorical education and literary criticism. In addition to a discussion of these origins, the paper also will outline some features common to the quotations being incorporated by our author."
Max J. Lee, North Park Theological Seminary, Respondent (10 min)
Scott D. Mackie, Independent Scholar
Divine Testing, Toil, and Confession of Divine Kinship in Philo, Congr. 163–180 and the Epistle to the Hebrews 12:1–17 (25 min)
"The relationship of the Epistle to the Hebrews to Philo of Alexandria has been the subject of debate since 1644, when Hugo Grotius first proposed that the author of Hebrews “seems to have read Philo.” Interpretive interest in this relationship has been grown substantially in the years since Ceslas Spicq famously endorsed Eugene Ménégoz’s claim that the author was “un philonien converti au christianisme.” Though this assertion has been challenged, a near consensus has been reached concerning the relationship of the two authors: they stand in proximate streams of Hellenistic Judaism. This paper identifies and analyzes a cluster of motifs that occur in Philo’s treatise, On the Preliminary Studies 163–180, and Heb 12:1–17. These shared themes include the benefits of testing, trials, toil and pain, life as an agonistic/athletic contest, weakened hands and limbs, gymnastic training, confessing kinship with God, bitterness, turning away from God, profane people, the figure of Esau, “peaceable” things, and “justice/righteousness.” In Congr. 163–180, Philo enlists these themes while defending the necessity of toil and hardship on the path of moral and philosophic progress, while in Heb 12:1–17 they are theodicial in intent, promoting perseverance in the face of persecution. A comparison of these two related texts and their varying protreptic goals is mutually illuminative, and it raises the possibility that the author of Hebrews may have been exposed to Philo’s treatise on the encyclical studies."
Jason A. Whitlark, Baylor University
Humor in Hebrews: Rhetoric of the Ridiculus in the Example of Esau (25 min)
"One area from the Greco-Roman world that has proven illuminating to the study of Hebrews has been classical rhetoric. Several dimensions of classical rhetoric have been explored in Hebrews—arrangement, characterization, style, vivid descriptions, and figured critique to name only a few. Notably, one area in the examination of classical rhetoric and Hebrews that has gained little attention has been humor and its role in declamation. The topic is treated at length by the Latin theorists Cicero and Quintilian. According to rhetorical theorists, humor was an effective strategy in rousing emotions, attacking an opponent, or targeting foolish actions. One topic of humor was the incongruity of exchanges. In addition to its characterization in the rhetorical handbooks, incongruous humorous exchanges are found in Homer’s Iliad, Lucian's Toxaris, and especially Aristophanes’s comedy, Aves. Moreover, art also tended to use disproportion or caricature to make humorous representations. Similar tendencies are present in Hebrews 12:16. In Hebrews 12:16, the author of Hebrews possibly engages in a little bit of humor through the example of Esau. Specifically, through a clever choice of words and emphasis upon the foolish incongruity in the exchange of Esau's birthright for temporary relief of hunger, the author of Hebrews wittily points out the absurdity of apostasy. Moreover, this engagement with the emotions comes at a point where the theorists specifically recommend the arousing of emotions—in a peroratio or, in the case of Heb 12:16, a secondary peroratio. The function of such a shaft of wit in the very serious discourse of Hebrews would have been to diminish the temptation to leave the community because it is ridiculed as an absurd choice in light of the “birthright” that the community has through the Son. This strategic use of humor supports the deliberative focus of the discourse of Hebrews that encourages perseverance in the confession of the Son and ongoing identification with the suffering of the community. Additionally, modern studies of humor have emphasized that shared humor helps create and maintain community identity and solidarity."
B. J. Oropeza, Azusa Pacific University, Respondent (10 min)
Discussion (30 min)
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
Room: 1A (Upper Level West) - Convention Center
Madison Pierce, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Presiding
Bryan R. Dyer, Calvin College/Baker Academic
"In the Days of His Flesh": The Humanity of Jesus in the Argument of Hebrews (30 min)
"By many scholars and in numerous ways, the significance of the humanity of Jesus has been identified within the argument of Hebrews. Yet, there has not been a full-length treatment pulling together the threads of the author’s argument in which Jesus’ humanity plays an important role. The intent of this essay is to identify those areas of Hebrews’ argument where Jesus’ humanity is discussed and to begin to address the question of why Christ’s humanity is so important for the author. In the essay I identify five aspects of Hebrews’ argument where Jesus’ humanity plays a role. First, I follow Moffitt in seeing Jesus’ humanity as the point of contrast with the angels in Hebrews 1-2. It is his humanity that allows Jesus to be elevated above the angels and reign in the world to come. Second, the humanity of Jesus is vital for the author’s presentation of Jesus as a high priest. Looking closely at 5:1-10, I trace how Jesus’ humanity is a key qualification for his high priesthood. Third, the author develops Jesus’ humanity to establish not only that Jesus is a high priest, but that he is a merciful and sympathetic one. Fourth, Jesus’ humanity is key to understanding not only how Christ is qualified to serve as a high priest in the heavenly sanctuary, but also to understanding what he offers God. That is, it is Jesus’ perfect humanity that he offers to God in the heavenly sanctuary. Finally, the parenetic function of the epistle is clear in the author’s presentation of Jesus’ humanity as it establishes him as an exemplar of faithful endurance for the recipients in their own struggle."
Michael Kibbe, Great Northern University
The Ascended Son (and His Siblings): Storied Theology in Hebrews 1 (30 min)
"It is quite common today for scholars to argue or assume that the context of at least some of the divine words to the Son in Hebrews 1 is his ascension and enthronement. This is rarely disputed concerning Heb 1:5 (citing Ps 2:7 and 2 Sam 7:14) and 1:6 (the source of the citation is less clear, though Deut 32:43 is the preeminent candidate), and nearly goes without saying in 1:13 (citing Ps 110:1). Some scholars furthermore argue that the conceptual location of the whole catena (1:5–13) is the Son in his incarnate state, rather than (as Hebrews has sometimes been read) Hebrews 1 being “about” Jesus’ deity and Hebrews 2 being “about” his humanity (e.g., Hurst, Schenck). A few go so far as to call the catena a “hymnic celebration” of the enthronement moment (Jipp, “Entrance into the Heavenly World, 558). This paper takes the argument one more step, suggesting that the entire paternal monologue of Heb 1:5–13 is precisely a description of the event itself—that is, of the Father’s words to the Son at the moment of his reception before the inhabitants of heaven. The arguments for this position are as follows: 1) concrete indicators of the timing of the statement in 1:5, 6, and 13; 2) the lack of any indication that the narrative context has shifted in 1:7–12; 3) the likely post-earthly-life setting of 1:9; 4) the suitability of 1:5–13 as a description of events in between the pivotal moments of 1:3 (atonement and session); 5) Hebrews’ broader interest in heavenly events (e.g., Jesus’ heavenly offering); 6) the similar (though pre-incarnate, in this case) narratival speech sequence in 10:5–7; 7) the Davidic-king-enthroned-on-Zion context of several of the texts cited in 1:5–13; 8) the consistency with which other NT authors use the Psalms to describe Jesus’ ascension and enthronement (e.g., Acts 2; Ephesians 4); 9) the identification of all these words as divine speech rather than written text—thus the appropriateness of the question “in what context did God speak these words?”; and 10) the enthronement scene as the basis for the incarnate Son’s superiority over the angels in preparation for the argument in Hebrews 2 that the Son and his siblings, rather than the angels, will rule over the world to come."
Seth Whitaker, University of St. Andrews
Future Hope and Ancient Songs: The Eschatology of Psalms in Hebrews 1–2 compared with Midrash and Targum Traditions (30 min)
"Citing 8 Psalms in just 22 verses (Heb. 1:5–2:12), the author of Hebrews gives us a glimpse of how he reads Jewish Scripture in light of the Son who speaks in 'these last days' (Heb. 1:2). The central confession that Jesus is the great heavenly priest for those in the contemporary wilderness waiting for the Lord’s eschatological rest is initiated and sustained by Psalm 110 and Psalm 95 respectively. Similarly, the Psalms frame Hebrews' initial portrait of Jesus and provide the foundation for eschatological hope in the first two chapters of the exhortation. Containing similar references to eschatological convictions such as ’the world to come’ (cf. Heb. 2:5; 6:5), the Midrash and Targum of the psalms found in Hebrews 1–2 provide correlated interpretations insightful for better understanding early Jewish exegesis. The Midrash concerning Psalm 102 (cited in Heb. 1:10-12) specifically interprets the prayer of the afflicted as an atoning prayer for 'a later generation' (Ps. 102:1, 18; cf. Heb. 13:15). And the Targum readings of Psalm 22 (cited in Heb. 2:12) expand the Hebrew for a unique addition of 'Abraham’s seed' (cf. Heb. 2:16) who will worship the LORD and tell of his might, again, to 'a later generation' (Trg. Ps. 22:31). Through this study, it seems likely that other Jewish interpretive traditions read the Psalms (particularly the psalms found in Hebrews 1–2) as particularly relevant for communities in the eschatological latter days. In this sense, the articulation of future hope is conceived by an appeal to the ancient songs of the Psalter."
Nicholas Moore, Cranmer Hall, St John's College, Durham University
Once More Unto the Breach: The Sanctuary Veil in Hebrews in Pentateuchal, Apocalyptic, and Synoptic Perspective (30 min)
"The temple/tabernacle curtain (καταπέτασμα) is mentioned six times in the NT, once in each of the Synoptic Gospels at the veil-tearing during Jesus’ crucifixion, and three times in Hebrews (at 6:19; 9:3; 10:20). A strong case has been made for understanding the Synoptic veil-rending accounts in apocalyptic terms (Daniel Gurtner). In Hebrews scholarship much attention has been given to the difficult phrase τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ in Heb 10:20, and also to the background of the veil imagery in an apocalyptic rather than gnostic conceptuality (Otfried Hofius responding to Ernst Käsemann). Less attention has been given to other key passages within Hebrews, to the connection between Hebrews and the Septuagint (especially Pentateuch) material on the veil, or to the relationship between Hebrews and the Synoptics. This paper will establish the importance of broadening our scope within Hebrews to include two passages where the curtain is strikingly absent (4:14-16 and 9:6-14), and on this basis will argue two further points: (1) Textually Hebrews depends in large part on the LXX, with influence from Second Temple apocalyptic traditions. (2) While there is little intertextual connection between Hebrews and the Synoptics, they display considerable conceptual overlap. Both construe heaven as an open sanctuary as a result of the Christ event, although with significant differences in the manner, timing, and agency of the breaching of the veil."
Vincenz Heereman, University of Notre Dame
How Abel Ended up in Hebrews: Reexamining the Origins of Heb 11:4 and the Problem of Dating the Targumim (30 min)
"Abel’s mention in Heb 11:4 has long been a challenge for interpreters. He is credited with faith and righteousness, two characteristics conspicuously absent from the laconic scriptural record of Gen 4. While from the earliest days commentators of Genesis have sought to fill in the gaps of the narrative, exegetes of Hebrews have wondered where in the tradition Abel came to be associated with faith. In 1961, French Targum scholar Roger Le Déaut claimed to have found the missing link: a significant haggadic tradition, reflected in the Palestinian Targumim (PT) and capable of providing the context for an adequate understanding of the Abel trope in Heb 11:4 and 12:24 (see his article “Traditions targumiques dans le corpus paulinien ? [Hebr 11,4 et 12,24; Gal 4,29-30; II Cor 3,16],” Bib 42 : 28–48). In Tg. Neof. Gen 4:8 Cain and Abel are portrayed as discussing the existence of a judge, a final judgment, and retribution in the world to come. What Cain denies, Abel steadfastly defends, and his profession of faith leads to his being murdered by his brother. This tradition, Le Déaut claims, belongs to the older strata of Targumic material and was known to the author of Hebrews. Le Déaut’s proposal was hesitantly received and can be found in the footnotes of some later commentaries. Upon the whole, however, NT scholars showed the usual misgivings about the possibility to rely on Targumic material to explain NT tropes—the main source of doubt being the late dating of the Targumim, at least as regards their final redaction. Was Le Déaut right in his assessment, or did he succumb to the temptation of an anachronistic parallelism? In my paper, I begin by surveying other ancient texts containing traditions about Cain and Abel (i.a. Life of Adam and Eve, 1 Enoch, various works of Philo), trying to establish whether any of them could provide a more suitable background to explain Abel’s characterization in Hebrews. None of what this survey yields seems to be what Hebrews has as its immediate backdrop. Nevertheless, a close inspection of the Philonic material concerning Abel reveals at least a certain kinship both with Hebrews and the PT. I then turn to canvass Rabbinic texts that refer to Abel. The result is intriguing. While the NT and subsequent Christian literature is consistent in portraying Abel as a hero, the Rabbinic sources are far from exclusively positive in their assessment. Their lack of enthusiasm, it seems, stems from the desire not to overemphasize a biblical character that had been christologically colonized by the Church. My investigation thus partially confirms Le Déaut’s argument. The PT’s positive stance toward Abel reflects an early origin, possibly contemporary to the exegetical traditions found in Hebrews and Philo. However, the recensions of the PT containing a detailed description of Cain and Abel’s faith-centered debate, more likely belong to a later generation of Jewish exegesis where the dialogue between believer and unbeliever had become a common trope."
The Bible in Ancient (and Modern) Media / Performance Criticism of Biblical and Other Ancient Texts
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
Room: 29A (Upper Level East) - Convention Center
Theme: Hermeneutics of Sound and Biblical Text
This session is organized jointly by the Bible in Ancient (and Modern) Media section and the Performance Criticism of Biblical and Other Ancient Texts section. This session will address such issues as sound mapping, linguistic studies, and auditory analysis. The papers for this session will feature discussion on literature from both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
Jeffrey E. Brickle, Urshan Graduate School of Theology
"Sing in Me, Muse": Converging Soundscapes in the Prologues of the Odyssey and Hebrews (25 min)
"While reflecting radically different eras, outlooks, genres, and styles, both Homer’s Odyssey and the Epistle to the Hebrews capitalize on the theme of an epic homecoming. The “hero” of each work seeks to lead his people on a journey fraught with danger in order to arrive safely at the intended telos. This essay will explore the prospect that the opening of Hebrews may aurally evoke the opening of the Odyssey, a well-known cultural text celebrated in antiquity for its literary characteristics, frequently deemed a mimetic exemplar, and deeply embedded in the psyche and paideia of Greco-Roman society. By investigating (1) key shared words and concepts, (2) the distinctive sound signatures developed by these prologues, (3) subjecting both prologues to the principles for euphonious composition advocated in Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s On Literary Composition (which, incidentally, begins with a quotation from the Odyssey and frequently cites Homer), and (4) examining aural resonances between these passages, the essay will attempt to demonstrate the value of utilizing sound mapping for interpreting biblical texts. Importantly, the study will evaluate the auditory effects obtained when Dionysius’s recommendations on elements such as word order, melody, rhythm, variety, and appropriateness are factored into our comparative analyses. This essay will advance the preliminary inquiry into this topic proposed by the author in his contribution to Sound Matters: New Testament Studies in Sound Mapping, volume 16 in Cascade’s Biblical Performance Criticism series."
Intertextuality in the New Testament
9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
Room: 30C (Upper Level East) - Convention Center
Theme: Intertextuality in the Epistles
Ryder A. Wishart, McMaster Divinity College
Cain and Abel in Second Temple Jewish Culture: The Intertextual Negotiation of Social and Theological Values (25 min)
"References to Cain and Abel in the New Testament exemplify the problematic nature of trying to identify direct connections between texts. Sometimes a reference does not use the same lexemes as the supposed reference text. At other times, a single lexeme is used in context to indicate an entire thematic structure. Context is critical within texts themselves, which is what Jay L. Lemke calls “thematic meaning.” Rather than seeing such references as allusions, echoes, or any other kind of document-to-document connection, they should be understood as text-to-culture-to-text connections. In other words, where scholars in the field trace direct connections between texts, these should be reconsidered as indirect connections, connections by way of shared cultural meanings. I will show that the NT references to Cain and Abel, though following the LXX tradition in some respects, nevertheless evidence engagement with the MT tradition as well. The reason these references engage both traditions simultaneously is because they engage neither directly. With this shift in perspective, I will show how Hebrews answers a question raised by the Masoretic Text tradition that many different Jewish communities over the centuries sought to answer, namely, what kind of sacrifice pleases God? In order to demonstrate this argument, I will trace one particular line of discussion in the secondary literature on Cain and Abel, namely the relationship between construal of Cain and Abel in the Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and New Testament. Using Lemke’s model of heteroglossic intertextual relations, I will then bring these “canonical” text traditions into dialogue with a number of non-canonical primary sources, illustrating the broad nature of the cultural conversation on Cain and Abel within Second Temple Judaism. Finally, I will demonstrate how faith, as the disposition acceptable to God in Hebrews 11:4 (and 12:24), allies and opposes other uses of the Cain and Abel tradition in Second Temple culture."